#### Question

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Why are NAND and NOR gates known as universal gates? Implement half adder circuit using NAND gates only.

• 1

NAND and NOR are called universal gates because all the other gates like AND,OR,NOT,XOR and XNOR can be derived from it.

Although and,or and not are basic gates but each of their functionality can be derived using nand and not as well.One more important aspect because of this AOI logic can be converted to either NAND or NOR logic.

Nand actually means NOT of AND,so NAND is a combination of AND and NOT.A NAND gate can also be implemented using inverted OR inputs and that's why also called as bubbled OR gate.

Similarly NOR means NOT of OR,so it is a combination of OR and a NOT gate.A NOR gate is also implemented using inverted AND inputs and so also called as bubbled AND gate

Implementation of Half Adder using NAND gates :
Total 5 NAND gates are required to implement half adder.

• 0

• NAND and NOR are called universal gates because all the other gates like AND,OR,NOT,XOR and XNOR can be derived from it.

Although and,or and not are basic gates but each of their functionality can be derived using nand and not as well.One more important aspect because of this AOI logic can be converted to either NAND or NOR logic.

Nand actually means NOT of AND,so NAND is a combination of AND and NOT.A NAND gate can also be implemented using inverted OR inputs and that's why also called as bubbled OR gate.

Implementation of Half Adder using NAND gates :
Total 5 NAND gates are required to implement half adder.